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Asthma


What is Asthma

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract. As a result of inflammation,the child's airways swell and become particularly sensitive.They react sharply to the most usual things that we are surrounded daily: dust, tobacco smoke, animal hair, etc. The child has a cough, wheezing, a pressing feeling in the chest. In the most severe cases-dangerous attacks of suffocation.Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children in the world. In Europe, they suffer at least 8% of all children.The development of this disease contributes to the pollution of the environment,which especially negatively affects children.Dust,gas pollution,tobacco smoke-the development of asthma contributes to the most ordinary things.buy seroflo online USA inhaler for AsthmaParents and teachers sometimes do not notice that frequent coughing and shortness of breath in a child have already become the first manifestations of a serious illness. Doctors are convinced that in world there are still many undiagnosed cases of asthma in children.Therefore, timely detection and treatment of asthma will save you and your child from this painful disease.Timely treatment is effective with the use of an aerosol inhaler brand Seroflo - a drug intended for patients using medications inhalation method, the combined composition of anti-asthma effects. The composition of the aerofoil inhaler Seroflo is unique, combined and consists of two active components: fluticasone propionate and salmeterol. In such a combination, the drug Seroflo does not clearly affect, the first ingredient Salmeterol suppresses the early and late stages of the reaction to inhaled allergens. The second ingredient Fluticasone propionate, which is also part of Seroflo, is an anti-inflammatory ingredient for the lungs, which reduces the symptoms of stress and reduces exacerbation of diseases in the future, makes breathing easier, and reduces the risk of developing asthma in the future by up to 75%! It is necessary to monitor the well-being of a child or an adult patient, with a slight deterioration in health, you need to consult a doctor in order not to worsen your health. Remember! The first sign of asthma is usually a cough.

History of Asthma

The words ἆσθμα and ἀσθμαίνω in the meanings of "heavy breathing" and "choking" are found in ancient Greek literature since the poems of Homer and continued to be used in this sense in Hippocrates; however, in Corpus Hippocraticum, the word ἆσθμα was also used as a common name for diseases accompanied by difficulty breathing - including difficulties, accompanied by a strong palpitation (cardiac asthma) and respiratory diseases with the release of viscous sputum. Hippocrates also described the forced "rectified" position of the patient during the attacks of suffocation - orthopnea (other Greek, ὀρθόπνοια), placing a description of the symptoms of asthma in his work on epilepsy "On the Sacred Disease"-due to the spastic nature of epileptic seizures and asthma.

Around the VIII century.BC.e.-in the work of Homer the Iliad mentions a disease manifested by periodic bouts of shortness of breath. As a means to prevent an attack, it was recommended to wear an amulet made of amber. One of the characters of the work is faced with this disease by a doctor and warlord Machaon. It should be noted that at that time doctors were highly respected and honored. As Homer wrote: "An experienced doctor is more precious than many other people.

Asthma treatment

With the correct treatment of asthma:
- there is no need for forced receptions of bronchodilators (seroflo),i.e. asthma is controlled;
- a patient with asthma does not need to be hospitalized, he does not worry about "first aid";
- reception of basic antiasthmatic drugs gradually descends to zero;
- and, most importantly, the patient leads a full active life, feels healthy, does not limit himself in anything because of asthma

In case of incorrect treatment of asthma:

- periodically there is a need for forced admission of bronchodilators due to asthmatic attacks. If you use inhalers like Berotech 4-5 times a day, you are one step away from hospitalization for an ambulance. If more than 4-5 times a day, at any time irreparable can happen;
- periodically you yourself can not cope with asthmatic attacks and are forced to call for an ambulance and even to be hospitalized;
- the need for anti-asthmatic inhalers is growing, asthma is progressing;
- You are limited in everything, we can talk about disability, asthma does not allow you to forget about yourself for a minute.
Know, today this situation with asthma has no right to life.

Types of Asthma

Types of Asthma is of allergic and infectious origin, and also of mixed form. Atopic (exogenous, allergic) asthma occurs when in contact with allergens. The latter get into the body by the respiratory way, it can be: dust, pollen of flowers, animal hair, etc. In general, asthma without allergies exists very rarely. And it starts with a disease with allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Then the person has an increased sensitivity to allergens, which, getting into the body, cause the cells of the body's immunity to produce histamine. He fights the irritant, but is unable to overcome it, and together with other substances causes the manifestation of allergic symptoms. Among them sneezing, runny nose, lacrimation, and, of course, bronchial cough that threatens with the manifestation of asthma.Non-atopic (endogenous, infectious) asthma originates from infectious and viral diseases that affect the upper respiratory tract. This may be ARI or hypersensitivity to some fungi. Such factors can provoke an attack: cold air, emotionality, excitement, physical activity, etc. Mixed asthma combines several contributing factors, for example, allergy and physical activity (or infection).There is also another more detailed classification of bronchial asthma: aspirin, physical effort (tension), cough, professional, night.

Aspirin Asthma

The factor that affects the narrowing of the bronchi of this form of the disease (refers to the mixed one) is one of the anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs, this includes aspirin. There is a triad of symptoms: intolerance of these drugs, polypous rhinosinusitis and attacks of suffocation.

Stress asthma

Appears from physical exertion. This is even the case with athletes who never suffered from this disease, but so intensely trained that some symptoms of asthma appeared. Symptoms are shown at the first twenty minutes of physical activity: bronchi narrow, breathing becomes difficult, coughing, wheezing.

Cough Asthma

The name itself indicates the presence of a strong cough, but it is not always asthmatic, so it is advisable to determine its cause for the examination. But it should be noted that this type of asthma is poorly diagnosed and treatable. The cause of its occurrence may be physical activity or respiratory infection.

Occupational asthma

It affects people who often come into contact with allergens and put themselves at risk of contracting the virus while at work. These are mainly such professions: nurses, farmers, artists, hairdressers, carpenters, chemical workers, etc. It is worth noting: among the signs of the disease there is no wheezing, instead of coughing, lacrimation.

Nocturnal asthma

A verpy common type of disease. Symptoms are manifested during sleep, which is predetermined by the circadian rhythm (sleep - wakefulness). Suffocation, coughing, wheezing are capable of awakening a person, so it is important to provide medical assistance on time - there are deaths. The cause of this asthma may be allergens, horizontal position of the body, hypothermia, disturbance of the sleep cycle, heartburn, sinusitis, etc. During sleep, the work of the whole organism and the respiratory tract changes, so it is important to go to bed comfortably so that there is no discomfort in breathing. It should be noted that the attack manifests itself in the evening, and not just at night.

But, in addition to bronchial asthma, there is also a cardiac asthma, their symptoms are very similar to each other. Cardiac asthma is an attack accompanied by shortness of breath and a feeling of suffocation. This is due to the stagnation of blood in the vessels of the lungs due to the difficulty of its entry into the heart (in the left ventricle). Pressure in the pulmonary capillaries increases, the blood stagnates, there is an interstitial pulmonary edema, which violates the patency of bronchioles and gas exchange in the alveoli, and therefore there is shortness of breath. Sometimes it increases due to reflex bronchospasm. In general, cardiac asthma is a type of heart failure, which often arises from a heart attack.

Signs of the disease

Symptoms of bronchial asthma include heavy breathing, which is caused by a lack of air, it is audible even at a distance, accompanied by suffocation, there is also a heaviness in the chest, there is a cough. The disease is often manifested at night.

The severity of asthma symptoms depends on the severity of its course: mild, moderate, severe. In a light form i.e. in the 1st stage, seizures occur rarely, can reach up to two times a week), usually lasts longer. And at night, that is, nightly awakenings occur even less often - no more often than twice a month. During this period, a stable condition of the patient is observed, not zheli with the average form of the disease, that is, at the 2 nd stage.

At the second stage of the so-called middle form, attacks occur almost daily, and at night more than once in 7 days. The patient feels weakness, the level of strength decreases, restless sleep. But with strong seizures every day, nightly is also very frequent, and, of course, a person's activity is limited.

A severe attack is characterized by severe shortness of breath, it becomes difficult for a child to speak and eat. Palpitation 140 bpm, and after a five-year age of 120 bpm. The frequency of respiratory movements is 50 per minute, or even more, after a five-year-old age of 40 per minute. In infants, bloating of the wings of the nose is observed when inhaled (the auxiliary muscles participate in the process of breathing). The child is not able to lie when attacking. The cervical veins swell, the skin becomes pale, palpable. The life of the patient is threatened by cyanosis and mild breathing.

Causes of asthma

Bronchial asthma is considered a polyethological disease, because the factors that cause it are divided into two different groups.These include: internal (those that predetermine the propensity) and external (those that realize it).

Heredity is an internal factor. If one of the parents is sick, then the risk of morbidity is 50%, if both were sick, then 65%. Genes responsible for the development of allergies and for the propensity to this disease are located on different chromosomes. Thanks to these genes there is an increase in IgE production, a decrease in the synthesis of interferons, and genes are responsible for the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines and a violation of adrenoreceptor synthesis. There is a genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic detoxification enzymes. This leads to atopy: bronchial hyperactivity arises in response to specific factors (allergens of non-infectious origin) or nonspecific (physical load, etc.).

External factors (allergens) affect people who are atopic. Non-infectious allergens are divided into:

1. Vegetable and animals (pollen of flowers, hay, grass, animal fur, remains of insects, arthropods, daphnia (water crustaceans, they are fed fish in aquariums).

2. Household (dust, house pliers, cockroaches allergens, pillow feathers, fungi and mold).

3. Nutritional (berries, chocolate), dominant protein origin (fish, crabs, eggs), preservatives and food colorings.

4. Medicamentous (different medications, among them antibiotics, aspirin, vitamins, etc.)

5. Chemical (washing powders, adhesives, detergents, cosmetics, etc.).

6. Professional (paints, medicines, metals). In a word, it refers to everything that a person can contact in his work.

7. Air pollutants - impurities that pollute the air (ozone, nitrogen oxide, exhaust gases, smoke, sulfur oxide and carbon), it is also harmful to have a high concentration of toxic substances in the air - mercury, lead, nickel, cadmium, chromium.

There are also triggers - specific factors provoking exacerbation of bronchial asthma. These are viruses and respiratory tract infections, the effect of allergens (eg, drugs in massive doses) under nonspecific conditions - hypothermia, emotional and mental fatigue, changes in the weather, pregnancy.

Causes in children

The prevalence of this disease in children around the world varies within 10%. Of these, half of the patients show signs of symptoms even before the age of two, and about 80% are sick at school age. The most common cause is pollutants and aerosolutions, which is associated with modern building materials and dusty air (cigarette smoke, nitrogen dioxide, etc.), and, of course, much depends on the increase in the number of household allergens, and also the infection with ARVI

Suffer preterm infants who have developed a pathology of the respiratory system, for example, one such is bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Also, smoking a pregnant or nursing mother can cause asthma in a child. Even if the mother does not smoke, but only dad, and the baby breathes cigarette smoke - this is already a threat of the development of the disease in the child.

Causes of cardiac asthma.

Heart failure in the left ventricle with myocarditis, acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular aneurysm, extensive cardiosclerosis, mitral valve insufficiency, arrhythmias, aortic heart defects, paroxysmal high blood pressure rise is the main cause of asthma. These cardiac problems are accompanied by a strong left ventricular tension.

Also, the appearance of such asthma contributes to an increase in the mass of blood in the circulation, this happens with physical activity, pregnancy, fever, the use of a large amount of fluid, as well as with the horizontal position of the body. As a result, excess blood flows into the lungs, which causes the disease.

Diagnosis of asthma

Diagnosis of bronchial asthma.

The examination is carried out by a pulmonologist, relying on these symptoms and the overall clinical picture. Asthma can be confused with other diseases, for example, with dysfunction of the vocal cords, because it also causes wheezing. The difference between the disease and bronchial asthma is that the vocal cords do not respond to drugs that open the airways. In addition, bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary thrombosis, heart attacks, and tumors still look like asthma. For this reason, additional studies are being carried out, for example, spirometry and pyclofometry.

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Spirometry - the air is exhaled into a special device. The expiratory flow rate is also measured with the help of peak flow measurement. This examination in the future must be done at home. Thus, the course of the disease and dosing of medicinal preparations are controlled. Laboratories take sputum and blood tests. With the help of computed tomography and radiography, other injuries of the respiratory tract are found: getting of some object, the presence of chronic circulatory insufficiency, etc. The allergist should also examine the patient and use the necessary skin tests to determine the allergen that causes asthma.

What is peak flow measurement and why is it needed?

Peak flow monitoring is an integral part of the control of asthma.A peak flow meter is a device that determines the rate at which air travels through the bronchi. The smaller the lumen of the bronchi, the smaller the rate of air passing through them.Color flow measurement helps to identify a factor affecting asthma. For example, if the peak expiratory flow rate decreases at home and increases at work, then the causative allergen is most likely in the apartment, and vice versa.

In addition, daily measurement of peak expiratory flow rate will help to recognize the beginning exacerbation of bronchial asthma and evaluate the effectiveness of basic therapy. And most importantly, a peak flow meter is capable of objectively assessing the state of the disease, and therefore, reliably monitor asthma!

Peak flowmetry technique.

Color flow measurement is performed in a standing position after several minutes of calm breathing. A deep breath is taken, then the mouthpiece of the peak flow meter is tightly wrapped around the lips and a sharp, quick exhalation is made to the end. The instrument arrow indicates the expiratory flow rate. The patient makes three measurements and records the best indicator in a special diary (graph).

Principles of peak flow metering diary.

Patients need to be trained in asthma self-monitoring using a peak flow meter. To do this, they need to be taught how to keep daily and weekly peak flow meter diary. Pikfloumetriya spend chime and in the evening, watching, thus, the state of their bronchi. In the morning peak flowmetry is carried out immediately after waking up, even before taking the medicine, in the evening - before going to bed, when all the necessary treatment has already been carried out. If the indicators are low and the fluctuations of the morning and evening values are more than 20%, then the control over the disease is not achieved.

It should be noted that the proper peak expiratory flow rate is individual and depends on the sex, age and height of the person. However, more often they are guided not by the proper, but by the best values, which are determined in the course of treatment.

If the patient learns how to correctly use the peak flow meter, he will be able to independently control his illness and more consciously communicate with the doctor. To do this, the doctor must be prepared to analyze daily and weekly peak flowmetry graphs!

Diagnosis of cardiac asthma.

Echocardiography is performed, thus showing cardiac insufficiency and increased pressure only in a small circle of the circuit. Or it is diagnosed with cardiac asthma, as well as bronchial asthma, with the help of a chest X-ray, then it is noticeable whether there is a congestion of fluid in the lungs. And after examining the functions of external respiration, there are manifestations of disturbances.