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Prevention of Asthma in children

Helping children

Prevention of asthma in children today is extremely important, as the number of patients with symptoms of this serious disease continues to grow. From 4 to 10% of the total population are afflicted with the disease, and among children - more than 10% have a problem of bronchial hyperactivity, reacting with spasm to stimuli. Various preventive measures are aimed at eliminating the factors that trigger the appearance of bronchial asthma. This is the so-called primary prevention. Ways to prevent the further development of complications and exacerbations in cases where bronchial asthma has already been diagnosed - secondary prevention. Sometimes experts also identify the tertiary - means of preventing death in severe and complicated disease.According to statistics, 5-10% of children in the world suffer from bronchial asthma. According to the World Health Organization, in the period from 2003 to 2008 the number of children with asthma increased by 30%, adolescents - by 27%.SEROFLO Inhaler has been tested by a medical science laboratory of USA products by a pharmaceutical institute for the regular treatment of asthma, where it was considered appropriate to use for patients with asthma.

children doctor listen

Children most often suffer from atopic asthma. Its cause is an allergic reaction, leading to a narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi. It usually occurs on contact with inhaled allergens: house dust, wool and dandruff of animals, plant pollen, mold spores. However, in young children, the trigger on the development of asthma can be the effect on the body of food allergens.

Bronchial asthma: the first symptoms and prevention of attacks. Cases of infectious-allergic asthma, which occurs against the background of chronic respiratory tract infections (eg, chronic bronchitis), are recorded in children much less frequently than in adults.

Mom note

Diagnosing bronchial asthma in children is a more difficult task than identifying the disease in adults. This is due to the fact that with moderate manifestations of respiratory discomfort, a child, especially a small one, cannot always adequately describe what he feels.

In addition, in children up to five years, the bronchi compared with the bronchi of adults have a narrower lumen and less developed muscular system. Because of this, the leading manifestations of asthma in many babies are not bronchospasm and suffocation (which is typical for adults and children over 5 years old), but edema of the bronchial mucosa and an abundant production of sputum. Not only parents, but sometimes doctors mistakenly consider it signs of ARVI or bronchitis. So, although the disease can develop from an early age, it is not immediately diagnosed.

However, an attentive parent may notice that the child is not just a cold. This is indicated by a number of signs.In asthma, a dry paroxysmal cough in a child occurs (or increases sharply) mainly at night or on waking.

The baby has wheezing.

The child regularly complains of tightness of breath or you observe that it is sometimes difficult.

Coughing or breathing problems occur during contact with animals, house dust, during departure to nature during the flowering period of plants, during physical or strong emotional stress.

In these cases, you need to contact the pulmonologist with the child and be examined.

As a rule, an asthma attack begins with coughing, a runny nose, urticaria can also appear. The child's breathing becomes uneven: the inhale is short, the exhalation is difficult. It is accompanied by wheezing and whistling, he "catches the air" with his mouth. Lips may acquire a bluish tinge, and skin may turn pale.

With such symptoms, the child should be seated on a chair, leaned forward so that elbows are leaning on their knees, and the window is opened to provide air flow (but the room should not get cold). It is necessary to use an inhaler with medicine that relieves bronchospasm (a drug from the group of beta-2-adrenomimetics), according to the instructions. You can also make hot baths for arms and legs.

It is very important to remain calm and distract the child’s attention, for example, read a book to him, give a favorite toy. The main thing - do not give him much to get scared, because fear, panic greatly aggravate the state during an attack.

Important

Useful exercise to create positive pressure at the end of exhalation. It will take a glass with a lid and a pipe threaded into it. It is necessary to take a deep breath with the nose, and then slowly exhale through the tube, lowered into a glass, a quarter filled with water.

Stop an attack

The main thing - do not panic! The condition of the small patient depends on how clear and correct your actions will be. If the attack happened at night, do not let the patient lie down - sit in bed, putting a couple of pillows under your back. Another option is to help the child stand and lean his hands on the bed rail or other support - it is easier to breathe. In case of an attack, it is recommended to use the Seroflo bronchodilator inhaler recommended by the doctor. Tell the child to try to contain a cough. Doctors have no reason to call it "unproductive." The fact is that such a cough does not bring relief, but only intensifies suffocation. Give warm tea, "Essentuki" No. 4 without gas or milk - let him drink gradually in small sips. Teach your child a special exercise that helps to restore breathing. Seat him and ask him to put both hands on his stomach. Let him slowly inhale air through his nose, feeling with his palms that his stomach is swelling like a balloon. At the same time the chest should remain motionless.

Next, let him fold his lips with a straw, make a slow exhalation through the mouth and at the same time feel that the balloon is deflating - the stomach becomes smaller.

Let him repeat this exercise at a slow pace until the breathing is restored (in mild cases it is enough 10-15 times).

Five strict "no"

Permanently rinse the medication out of the inhaler: an overdose can increase bronchospasm! Give your child antihistamines (diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil, pipolfen) - they dry the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, and medicines that suppress the cough (libexin, gluusant, tusuprex), and the drugs suppress the cough (libexin, gluusant, tusuprex), and the drugs that suppress the cough (libexin, gluusant, tusuprex); they aggravate choking.

Use substances with cutting mi smells (rubbing with turpentine, vodka with vinegar, Vietnamese balsam "Golden Star" and so on).

Making mustard baths and putting mustard plasters is due to overheating.

To make honey inhalations, give the child tea with honey, raspberries and lemon, put Kalanchoe juice, beets, onions, and herbal infusions that are commonly used for colds in the nose - they can cause allergies.

Attention

When to call an ambulance

The wheezing, coughing and difficulty breathing are aggravated, despite taking the medicine, although enough time has passed for it to work (bronchodilatory inhalations relieve after 15 minutes, and anti-asthma drugs in tablets for an hour).

Breathing becomes whistling, heard in the distance.

Shortness of breath increases, breathing is so frequent and shallow that it interferes with speaking.

The child is hunched, straining the wings of the nose and the muscles of the face, the pits above the collarbone and the gap between the ribs are retracted.

Chills or sweats appeared.

Blue lips, nasolabial triangle or nails.

It became difficult for the child to walk, he weakened, complaining of tinnitus and dizziness.

Doctors call the prolonged attack an asthmatic status. They take it out only in a hospital setting - do not refuse hospitalization.

Primary prevention of asthma in children

Negative changes in the ecology of the environment, frequent acute respiratory viral infections significantly increase the risk of allergies and obstructions, weaken the protective capabilities of children's organisms. For the prevention of asthma in children, doctors recommend: Be sure to use breastfeeding for children under 1 year. This will strengthen the body of the baby. Introduce lure only after consulting a doctor. Exclude from the menu allergenic foods (nuts, chocolate, citrus). Minimize the number of collectors of dust in the house - carpets, heavy curtains, etc. Use hypoallergenic household products. Do wet cleaning of the apartment and air rooms more often. Eliminate or make minimal contact of the child with pets. Parents who care about the health of the child should stop smoking and lead a healthy lifestyle. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of obstruction. The main thing is the atmosphere of love and mutual understanding in the family. It will create a sense of calm and reliability in the baby. Especially these tips are important for families whose child has a genetic predisposition for bronchial asthma, if he has already suffered from various allergic diseases or illnesses associated with bronchi.

Secondary prevention of bronchial asthma

If some complications could not be avoided, and the first signs of asthma appeared (coughing, difficulty breathing, obstructive phenomena, allergic reactions), it is necessary to take the above requirements even harder and create a situation in which allergens will not have place. With the help of tests and observations accurately determine what causes the baby's reaction. Then completely eliminate contact with the allergen. An allergist will select the correct drug treatment and advise on ways to strengthen the child’s immune system. Such prevention of asthma attacks will allow you to control the condition of the bronchial mucosa and reduce their activity. Reduce the physical load of the patient, but do not exclude it, walk more in the fresh air. Perform breathing exercises, exercises which are designed for patients with bronchial asthma.Children have more spitting phlegm than adults, due to pulmonary edema, but fewer spasms. With an increased seizure of aerosol use is not recommended, and even forbidden, if it is often used. During the choking of a child, you need to put him to bed, give an antiasthmatic drug, solutan or euphyllin, etc. (the dosage depends on the age of the patient). Also in the nose you can drip a solution of ephedrine, for hands, feet, make a hot bath.

The attention of the child should be distracted so that he is not afraid of an attack, for example, to give a look at the pictures in the book. If the problem persists for up to 40 minutes, then immediate medical attention is needed. The doctor should be sure to tell what medications the baby gave him so that he does not inject them again, otherwise there may be an overdose of the medications.

Usually, with a mild asthma attack, doctors recommend inhalation (1-2 doses of a bronchodilator). For older age and with ineffectiveness of other drugs, salbutamol, berotek H (β2-agonists) will work. And for children of an earlier age, atroent (M-holinomimetic) will help, it is also effective in night attacks. The ferodual is still not bad - the combined spasmolytic (β2-agonist and M-cholinomimetic). Improvement should come in 20 minutes. With moderate-onset seizure treatment is the same. Only if there is no inhaler, you can enter intravenously 2.4% solution of euphyllin only on isotonic sodium chloride solution (the exact dosage and mode of administration is known by the doctor). The effect will come in 20 minutes. But a severe attack requires immediate hospitalization - oxygen therapy, inhalation bronchospasmolytic.

In a child with asthma, this reaction becomes excessive (the so-called bronchial hyperreactivity is formed), as a result, the flow of air into the lungs is disturbed, and air cannot escape. The lungs swell, the chest expands, the heart becomes cramped in it, the condition of the young asthmatic worsens, and he still can neither inhale nor exhale.

Different children have asthma attacks unequally. Some breathe with a whistle, others cough, and still others cannot breathe. It is important to recognize in time the approach of an attack according to its precursors - the first symptoms of impending distress.

Shortly before the attack, the child becomes naughty, irritable, begins to learn worse, get tired faster, does not sleep and eats, complains that his eyes and nose are itching, sneezing in volleys. Parents should give the student medicine or make inhalation prescribed by a doctor. And it is very important to ensure peace. There are no outdoor games, walks are canceled, test, test work, exams, Olympiads and other competitions - too. The slightest excitement can provoke an attack!

Know the reason

Recall the latest cases of exacerbation of bronchial asthma in a child and analyze their causes.

Attacks occur in any season or only in some specific - in winter, spring, summer? In cold weather, children who suffer from an infectious-allergic form of the disease feel worse: cold and flu trigger the mechanism of bronchospasm in them.

Do you have breathing problems outside? In cold, windy and damp weather, asthma can worsen due to the temperature difference: it is warm in the apartment, and in the yard, on the contrary, it is cold.

Has the weather changed, perhaps there was a drop in atmospheric pressure, a thunderstorm, or a magnetic storm? Meteozavisimosti - one of the causes of exacerbation of bronchial asthma.

Was the child active and mobile more than usual before the onset of the attack? Muscle load is a powerful provoking factor for the disease, there is even such a diagnosis - asthma of physical effort.

Shkolnik somehow upset, upset, worried, overexcited, or, perhaps, laughed a lot? An emotional surge can also lead to an attack.

Did you eat citrus, chocolate, nuts, egg, fish or other allergenic product? Food allergies lead to prolonged, sometimes very severe asthma attacks, which do not always develop immediately after eating. Sometimes after taking the product provocateur pass the day.Responded to a bouquet of chrysanthemums brought to the house by guests? So, he is allergic to pollen of hard-colored plants. You can not keep them in the house even in dry form - as part of ikebana or pharmacy fitosborov. The same applies to wormwood, calendula.

Where does bronchospasm begin most often? Suppose it usually happens in an apartment. Such attacks provoke house dust mites, animal dander (if the family has a dog, a cat, a hamster), food for aquarium fish. The situation is exacerbated if someone from a family member smokes.

Rules of hypoallergenic life

Do a wet cleaning every day and several times a week while the child is at school, clean the room with a vacuum cleaner. In the room where he sleeps, put a humidifier.

Keep textbooks, books, and toys in a closet or closed drawers. Every month, wash soft hares, bears and other inhabitants of the nursery, do not leave them in sight.

No feather or feather pillows and blankets - they accumulate a huge number of microscopic mites, causing the strongest household allergies. The reaction to animal fur is no match for it! Get for a child sleeping accessories made of wool or high-quality padding polyester.

Air the apartment every 1-2 hours. If there are damp corners in which the fungus starts up in the form of black bloom (it is the strongest allergen), dry them with a heater or an electric fireplace. Brush the joints between the tiles in the bathroom thoroughly.

There are no flowers in the nursery - they emit allergenic pollen, collect dust, and in the pots there is often a mold, to which the bronchi also react with spasm.

If you had no pets before the first attack, you can’t start them. They are in the house, where you go to visit? Give your child a pill for allergies, do not let them pet your pet (if it happened, immediately wash the baby's hands) and do not stay long in such a house. When a cat or dog lives in a family since the birth of a son or daughter, their presence in the first months acts as a vaccine against asthma and allergies - this fact was recently established by scientists. So you don’t give your pets “good hands” because they are not dangerous for a child. However, it is recommended to bathe animals every week in order to remove epidermis flakes and saliva residues from the fur - they just have allergenic properties.